This is covered by:

AQA 8035, Cambridge IGCSE, CEA, Edexcel A, Edexcel B, Eduqas A, OCR A, OCR B, WJEC

Hard Engineering for Coastal Defence

Hard engineering options to protect the coastline tend to be expensive. They are often very obvious and have a high impact on the environment. Ironically, the fact that they are very obvious makes them seem reassuring to people living near them. They look strong and thus give people confidence in them.

Hard engineering usually aims to completely block waves and their effects, but this can have the unfortunate side effect of causing erosion of the beach in front of the defences, or further along the coast. Hard engineering is typically found in seaside resorts and where roads / buildings / railways are sited right on the shoreline. In such areas there is a need for effective protection and the high cost of hard engineering is justified by the high cost of replacing the roads, buildings or other facilities that might otherwise be destroyed by erosion.

Examples of hard engineering include: