This is covered by:

AQA 8035, Cambridge IGCSE, CEA, Edexcel A, Edexcel B, Eduqas A, OCR A, OCR B, WJEC

Soft Engineering for Coastal Defence


Soft engineering is sometimes described as ‘working with nature’ to protect the coastline. Unlike hard engineering with walls, groynes and ‘built’ defences, soft engineering consists of rejuvinating sand dunes, creating new dunes, replacing beach material lost through erosion, and re-shaping beaches to improve their durability.  It also includes ‘doing nothing’ to protect the coastline.

These options cost less than hard engineering, have less impact on the environment, and are often more sustainable over time. They are also often less obtrusive and leave the coast looking more ‘natural’.


Key forms of Soft Engineering covered in the GCSE are…